Arabica and Robusta Coffee

Types of coffee beans: Arabica and Robusta Coffee.

Arabica and Robusta Coffee

  Coffee is a whole world. If we start with its raw material, the coffee bean, we find two main types of beans in the world: Arabica and Robusta. However, there are also variations adapted to local crops with their own plantations. The other two main groups are excel and the liberal. As a coffee lover, do you know how to distinguish between the different types of beans? If the answer is no, don't worry, we will tell you in this post.

Arabica or arabigo coffee

Arabica coffee is one of the most appreciated coffees in the world. Like all coffee beans, it comes from the coffee tree, a plant of the Rubiaceae family, of which there are about 90 species. Originally from Ethiopia, it is currently the most widely cultivated in the world. For its production it needs a robust altitude of about 500-800 metres and thrives in subtropical climates. It is very sensitive to extreme heat and humidity. It needs a lot of attention for its cultivation, but it is worth it because the beans are of high quality.

On the other hand, Arabica coffee is rich in aromas and flavours, which are what define each coffee variety. Its flavour is smooth, with fresh, fruity and floral notes and a balanced touch of acidity. Of course, these nuances will depend on many factors such as the water, the bean and any processes involved in the preparation of a unique cup.

- Arabica or arabigo coffee varieties

Within the Arabica coffee bean we find different groups

   Moka: this bean is characterized by having a low acidity and a flavor somewhat reminiscent of chocolate.
  Java: after Moka, we are talking about the most popular Arabica variety. It has a strong, spicy, yet sweet taste.
  Kenya AA: it is known for having a much more intense flavor with aromas of berries with an acid touch.
  Tarrazú: it is famous for having a good body. Likewise, its flavor has a chocolatey touch with a tone of aged wood.
  Peaberry: to obtain it, fertilized seeds are used, that is to say, the fruits of coffee. It has a sweet aroma with floral and citric notes.
  Sierra Nevada de Santa María: its name comes from the most extensive and varied natural park in Colombia. It is known for having an acid and bitter tone, and at the same time, it gives off a caramelized flavor with hints of toasted bread.
  Harrar: the entire process of harvesting, drying and roasting is done by hand in the Harrar region of Ethiopia. It is considered a medium-bodied bean with high acidity and a fruity aroma.
  Yirgacheffe: its flavor is dense and sweet. In addition, aromas with fruity and wild tones can be distinguished.
  Mandheling and Lintong: it has an intense aroma of forest herbs, which lowers its quality a little.
  Taroja Kalossi: it comes from Indonesia, specifically from the island of Celebes. It is highly appreciated for its full body and balanced acidity.
  Blue Montain: for gourmets of good coffee this variety is a real delight. It originates from Jamaica and has an intense and very pleasant aroma with a slight acidity.

      Robusta Coffee

  As we have indicated, another of the large groups of coffee beans is the robusta, also known as Coffea canephora. It comes from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and its seed is much more resistant than the Arabica and therefore it accepts a greater variety of soils.

  The taste of Robusta coffee is rather bitter and is combined with hints of nuts and wood. Likewise, its texture is rougher and creamier, which makes it less attractive for the finest tastes and ideal for the elaboration of espresso coffees.

  Differences between arabica and robusta coffee

The main difference between Arabica and Robusta coffee is that the former is the most widespread in the market due to its better taste. However, robusta coffee is much more resistant to pests and can be grown at much lower altitudes. This means that Robusta coffee is much easier to grow and cheaper to produce. We will now move on to look at more differences between the two groups of coffee beans:

  1 Origin: Arabica coffee comes from the Caffea arabica species and robusta from Caffea canephora. The former requires a cool subtropical climate and is very vulnerable to cold and insects, which makes its cultivation much more expensive.
  2  Bean shape: the arabica bean is oval and greenish while the one obtained from the robusta plant is rounder and yellowish.
  3  Caffeine: Arabica coffee has half the caffeine of Robusta coffee, which makes the latter much more bitter than the former.
  4  Nuances: Arabica coffee is sweet, slightly acidic and with great flavor nuances while Robusta coffee is more bitter and with nuances of nuts, wood and straw.
  5  Sugars: Arabica coffee has 60% of lipids, approximately double that of Robusta.
  6  Production: 75% of the world coffee production is Arabica, while the remaining 25% is Robusta.

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